Lecture 10: Early Modern History II “The Yasui House Documents and Development of Dōtonbori”

Hero Image: The Yasui House Documents
owned by Osaka Museum of History
安井家文書 大阪歴史博物館所蔵

Introduction

Even today, Dotonbori is one of Osaka’s best-known entertainment districts. Dōtonbori and the surrounding area were constructed in conjunction with the formation of the early modern city. During a court case held in the 1960s, the descendants of Yasui Kuhē, one of the individuals who directed Dōtonbori’s development, presented a body of documents which described the neighborhood’s formation and development. Those documents provide us a wealth of information about the making Dōtonbori. In addition, in recent years, a second collection of previously unknown Yasui House records was discovered in Shizuoka Prefecture. The Yasui House was one of the houses that served for successive generations as District Administrator of Osaka’s Minami District. During this week’s lecture, I will introduce the Yasui House records while analyzing Dōtonbori’s formation and early modern urban development.

1. Present-Day Dōtonbori and the Discovery of the Yasui House Documents

Currently, in the vicinity of Dōtonbori’s Ebisu Bridge, there is a riverfront promenade known as the Tonbori Riverwalk. From the promenade, one can observe the pleasure boats that carry tourists along the Dōtonbori Canal. The promenade was constructed in the twenty-first century as part of a broader redevelopment project carried out in the Dōtonbori area. This was not, however, the first time that the area was targeted for reconstruction. During the 1960s as well, a large-scale redevelopment project was executed in Dōtonbori. At that time, in an effort to improve quality of the water in Dōtonbori Canal and prevent storm surges, land on both sides of the river was gradually reclaimed and the river walls on both sides were raised. Half of the reclaimed land was sold off to land owners on both sides of the Canal. The money collected was then used to defray the construction costs. The remaining portion of the reclaimed land was designated as a greenbelt, although part of it actually served as the site of a paved walkway.  

After the redevelopment project was announced, the descendants of Yasui Kuhē claimed rights to the land along Dōtonbori Canal and filed suit against the Osaka prefectural and city governments. The case took place over a period of approximately ten years and ultimately the judge rejected the claims of Yasui Kuhē’s descendants. During the trial, Kuhē’s descendants claimed that Kuhē and his co-developers used their own financial resources to construct Dōtonbori. Accordingly, they argued, Kuhē’s descendants were the rightful owners of the land lining the canal. In an effort to bolster their claim, they submitted, as evidence, a large volume of Yasui House records. Subsequently, those records came to be stored, together with a previously-donated collection of Yasui House documents, at the Osaka Municipal Museum (the precursor of the Osaka Museum of History). In 2012, a second body of Yasui House documents was newly discovered. They were preserved by Mr. Endō Ryōhei, a resident of Shizouka Prefecture’s Fukuroi-shi. The Endōs are relatives of the Yasui. Mr. Endō graciously entrusted these documents to the Osaka Museum of History, where they are presently stored. Before the documents were transferred, I visited Mr. Endō’s residence in Shizuoka Prefecture together with Yagi Shigeru, one of the Osaka Museum of History’s curators. I distinctly remember the excitement that I felt when we were shown the documents (Picture of the Yasui House Documents).

The newly-uncovered collection of documents contained a large number of records concerning Dōtonbori’s urban development and the formation of the surrounding city area. In addition to serving as one of the district administrators of Minami District, Yasui Kuhē also held various special rights related to Dōtonbori’s neighborhoods and playhouses. Accordingly, together with letters from Oda Nobunaga and other warrior houses, the Yasui House Documents include genealogies which served as proof of the above rights, neighborhood cadastral registers known as mizuchō, large cadastral maps, and records containing information about Dōtonbori’s playhouses and smaller performance sites. Utilizing these diverse resources, let us examine Dōtonbori’s formation.

2. Dōtonbori’s Development as Seen from Yasui House Genealogies

In order to understand Dōtonbori’s development, it is important to keep two things in mind. First, it is essential to consider the state of Osaka during the period immediately preceding Dōtonbori’s construction. According to existing research about Osaka’s formation, development of the city area was initiated after Toyotomi Hideyoshi began the construction of Osaka Castle in 1583. That process was carried out gradually, first along on the Uemachi Plateau and then in the Senba and Tenma areas. However, at the time, the Nishi-senba and Shimanouchi areas were still comprised of agricultural villages. As this suggests, plans for Dotonbori’s development were already in place before a large portion of the early modern city had been constructed. There was still significant distance between the site selected for Dōtonbori’s construction and the parts of the city that were already urbanized. The second thing to consider is the existence of narrow tracts of land between the Canal and the street. If one walks along Dōtonbori Canal, one immediately notices that those narrow tracts are occupied by buildings. These narrow tracts of land represent the lingering vestiges of what was known in the Edo period as hamachi, or narrow tracts of sloping canal-side land. It is vital to consider these canal sides when attempting to understand the history of Osaka canals and rivers. The Yasui House Documents include house genealogies from 1670 and 1677. These genealogies include revisions, which have been added using fūsen, or written notes layered onto existing documents. Moreover, they provide us with a basic understanding of the various stages of Dōtonbori’s development.

  1. In 1612, Nariyasu Dōton, Yasui Jihē, Yasui Kuhē, and Hirano Tōjirō filed a petition and began construction on the Dōtonbori Canal.   At the same time, they initiated the development of canal-side residential tracts with a uniform length of 36.37 meters.
  2. However, Yasui Jihē soon fell ill and died, while Nariyasu Dōton perished as part of the losing Toyotomi side during the Battle of Osaka. Following the Battle of Osaka, Matsudaira Tada’akira’s chief retainer and magistrates assumed control of the city. In the ninth month of 1615, Yasui Kuhē and Hirano Tōjirō were ordered to continue developing residential tracts on both sides of the Dōtonbori Canal. By the time that the order was issued, construction of the Canal itself was already completed.
  3. In 1619, Matsudaira Tada’akira was reposted to Yamato-kōriyama. The Bakufu then assumed direct control of Osaka. From 1619 until the mid-seventeenth century, there were large numbers of unoccupied land parcels in Dōtonbori.
  4. Urban development advanced most quickly in the eight neighborhoods immediately lining Dōtonbori Canal. From the time of the Canal’s construction, Yasui Kuhē served as the area’s chief administrator. Accordingly, when Dōtonbori’s cadastral register was updated in 1655, Yasui co-sealed the document together with Hirano Tōjirō’s younger brother Tokuju. At that time, he also composed a cadastral map and submitted it to the Osaka City Governor.

Notably, Yasui Jihē and Kuhē, both of whom played a leading role in Dōtonbori’s development, were from an urban settlement connected to Kyūhōji Temple (present-day Yao-shi), while Nariyasu Dōton and Hirano Tōjirō were from Hirano County (present-day Osaka’s Hirano Ward). All four were influential figures from urban settlements in the vicinity of Osaka. Notably, influential area residents also led the construction of the canals in Osaka’s Nishi-Senba district.

3. Dōtonbori’s Tortuous Development

In addition to constructing Dōtonbori Canal, the area’s developers constructed sloping tracts of land on both sides. In addition, they installed roads on both sides of the Canal and constructed residential tracts with a uniform length of approximately 36 meters. Also, they established a series of new neighborhoods, such as Kichizaemonchō and Ryūkeimachi. These neighborhoods were communal associations of land owners.

In the foregoing section, we examined Dōtonbori’s formation during the first half of the seventeenth century using the newly-discovered Yasui House documents. Now, I would like to introduce the research of Osaka Museum of History’s curator Yagi Shigeru. Mr. Yagi played a central role in the organization and analysis of the recently discovered Yasui House records and his work provides various important insights about Dōtonbori’s initial stage of development. First, let us examine the following map and schematic diagram.

Partially quoted from ”The Map of Osaka’s Three District(1655)” owned by Osaka Museum of History

As the map and diagram indicate, the development of Dōtonbori’s eastern half proceeded most rapidly. The urbanized parts of Dōtonbori were partitioned into eight neighborhoods and a chief administrator was appointed to administer local affairs. During the 1630s, however, a growing number of unoccupied residential tracts began to appear in the area. In 1640, a series of petitions requesting the right to redevelop individual tracts were submitted to the Osaka City Governor’s Office and ultimately approved. That ushered in a second wave of construction in the area. As a result, the development of the tracts of land lining Dōtonbori Canal finally reached completion. At the same time, however, lands along the eastern edge of the Canal and those along the western side of the Nishi-yokobori River remained undeveloped. In response, Yasui, Hirano, and other influential residents of Kizu, Kami-Namba, and Nishi-Kōzu Villages petitioned the city authorities for the right develop a portion of those undeveloped areas. Ultimately, their petition was approved and they presided over a process of rapid urbanization, which resulted in the establishment of a series of new neighborhoods. Once the project was complete, the men were appointed to serve as the administrators of the newly-constructed neighborhoods.    

This schematic diagram depicts Dōtonbori during the 1660s, the period in which this redevelopment process took place. During the period in question, a series of new neighborhoodsーHirano Tokuju-chō, Naniwa Magobē-chō, and Kōzu Goemon-chōーwere established. Emblematic of how urban development was carried out during this period, the neighborhoods were named after the individuals responsible for their construction.

Included in the recently discovered body of Yasui House documents is a large map of Dōtonbori. The names of the individuals who owned land in Dōtonbori during this period are written on the map. This is the map.  

“A Large Map of Dōtonbori” owned by Osaka Museum of History

It is actually a transcription of a Meireki-era map mentioned in Dōtonbori’s genealogy. As described in the genealogy, the map is signed by Yasui Kuhē and Hirano Tokuju. An examination of the map reveals that the Yasui and Hirano houses maintained large estates on both sides of Nipponbashi Bridge. In addition to this map, there is a cadastral register from the same period, which was verified by both men. As the foregoing discussion suggests, the newly discovered collection of Yasui House documents contains a number of valuable documents which tell us about Dōtonbori’s formation and the special rights granted to the Yasui House.  

In recent years, Yagi Shigeru’s research has contributed greatly to our understanding of Dōtonbori’s development. Citing his research, I would like to mention a few additional points. First, the narrow tracts of land on both sides of Dōtonbori Canal were used as a site for offloading cargo. In addition, individuals who owned land along the Canal were given permission to use the narrow canal-side tracts of land across the street from their property. Many established canal-side storehouses on those narrow parcels. Osaka’s canal-side storehouses are depicted in various Edo-era illustrations.

Picture of Canal-Side Storehouse, from “A Collection of Pictures Depicting the Sights of Settsu Province” owned by Osaka Museum of History

They were simple structures erected over the sloping canal side, which were supported from below by wooden stilts similar to those that support Kiyomizu-dera. City regulations prohibited landowners from erecting permanent structures along these narrow canal-side tracts of land. Accordingly, individuals who erected storehouses and other structures had to be prepared to promptly remove them when ordered.

In addition, in order to bring money into Dōtonbori, Yasui Kuhē lured playhouses and performance tents to the area. In order to reward the Yasui for their efforts, a special box was permanently set aside for them at each playhouse in Dōtonbori. That box was referred to as the Yasui Box. In 1665, Dōtonbori’s playhouses began to flourish and playhouse operators determined that it was no longer sensible to leave a box open permanently for the Yasui. Instead, the House was given a pass which they could use whenever they wished to enter any of Dōtonbori’s playhouses. Over time, an additional perk―the use of a wooden tobacco tray during performances―came to be attached to that entry pass. One of the tobacco trays that the Yasui actually used has been preserved.

Early in the second half of the seventeenth century, there were 8 large playhouses and 16 smaller performance venues in Dotonbori’s Ryūkeimachi and Kichizaemonchō neighborhoods. However, by the beginning of the eighteenth century, all of the smaller venues had disappeared. At the same time, performance tents known as mizuchaya were erected in large numbers on the narrow tracts of land lining both sides of the Dōtonbori Canal.

These sloping tracts of canal side land were not unique to Dōtonbori. In fact, they were constructed along many of early modern Osaka’s rivers and canals. During the second half of the eighteenth century, however, the tracts of land lining the Horie Canal were built up and ultimately redeveloped as commoner land. These newly reclaimed tracts of canal-side land were referred to as shin-tsukiji. Similar projects were proposed in the case of Dōtonbori, as well. In 1777, for example, an influential figure from Kawachi Province’s Kuzuha Village named Nakai Mantarō petitioned the Osaka City Governor for the right to reclaim a tract of land along the south bank of the Dōtonbori Canal and redevelop it into 12.72 meters of commoner land. The residents of Dōtonbori’s eight neighborhood associations strongly opposed the project. The head of the Yasui House led the opposition effort, filing a counter petition. In order to bolster the claim of Dōtonbori’s residents, he submitted a series of house genealogies demonstrating his ancestor’s involvement in the area’s development. Three years later, after receiving a judgment was handed down by the Bakufu high court in Edo, the Osaka City Governor formally rejected Nakai’s petition. As a result, the sloping canal-side tracts of land lining the Dotonbori Canal remained in place into the late Edo period.

Summary

   Generation after generation, the patriarch of the Yasui House served as one of the district administrators of Osaka’s Minami District. Osaka’s district administrators played a central role in the administration of the city’s three commoner districts. All of those houses that served as district administrator were influential urban landholders. The Yasui, of course, were one such household. In addition to playing a central role in the management of the city’s commoner districts, the Yasui House held a range of special rights in the Dōtonbori area. The Yasui House Documents contains both records related to the House’s role as Minami District Administrator and house genealogies. In addition, the collection includes a particular large number of records that were composed as a consequence of the House’s various rights and privileges in the Dōtonbori area. The character of the records produced and preserved by a specific house or social organization during the Edo period is intimately related to the house or organization’s place in the social division of labor.

Before concluding, I would like to mention two final points. The first concerns the character of Dōtonbori’s development. During the period in which Dōtonbori’s construction was initiated, urban development in Osaka was still limited to the areas shown on the Toyotomi-era map. At the time, there were still large swaths of farmland in Mitsutera and Namba Villages, which separated the site proposed for Dōtonbori’s construction and the already urbanized parts of the city. It is likely that Dōtonbori’s site was selected not only because it was already the location of a small creek, but also because it was designated to serve as the city’s eventual southern extreme. The northern portion of Dōtonbori’s eastern half was completed in 1620 as a result of the urbanization of Mitsutera Village. The newly developed area was called Shimanouchi. The development of Dōtonbori’s western half did not, however, proceed as smoothly. As the large map of Dōtonbori examined above shows, even during the late-seventeenth century, the southern portion of the area’s western half remained undeveloped. In addition, as I mentioned last session, during the late-seventeenth century, the Horie section of southwestern Osaka was still farmland. Horie’s urbanization was, however, achieved shortly thereafter with the construction of the Horie-shinchi in 1698.

Considered in light of the above discussion, it is possible to assert that the development of the Dōtonbori area was part of a broader process of urbanization, which included the simultaneous construction of a series of canals in the Nishi Senba area. Also, permitting the operation of licensed playhouses and teahouses in Dōtonbori in order to promote economic vitality is a technique that the early modern authorities utilized during later periods when attempting to encourage the development of the Horie and Sonezaki areas.

The final point concerns hamachi, or the narrow tracts of land that lined Osaka’s canals and rivers. As mentioned above, if you visit Dōtonbori today, you will notice that there are long, narrow slivers of land lining both sides of the canal. The origin of those narrow tracts of land can be traced back to Edo-period Osaka’s sloping canal sides. During the Meiji period, canal-side lands came under individual ownership. Although Dōtonbori’s canal sides were built up and partially reconstructed during the 1960s, it is possible to observe in present-day Dōtonbori the continuing influence of the Edo-era spatial structure on the contemporary built environment. Furthermore, the vitality and prosperity of present-day Dōtonbori can be said to be an extension of early modern policies of urban development which transformed the area into a center of entertainment where large groups of people congregated.

 


第10 回:近世史②「安井家文書と道頓堀開発」

まえおき

 道頓堀は、現在でも大阪を代表する繁華街の一つです。道頓堀とその周辺の開発は、近世大坂の都市開発の一環でした。道頓堀周辺の開発の様子が窺える史料が、その開発に尽力した安井九兵衛家の子孫の方から、1960年代に道頓堀をめぐる裁判の過程で公表されました。さらに近年、新たな古文書も発見されました。安井家は、江戸時代には代々南組の惣年寄を勤めた家です。今回は、安井家に残された「安井家文書」を紹介しながら、道頓堀の開発と都市形成について見ていこうと思います。

1.現在の道頓堀と安井家文書の発見

 現在、道頓堀では、戎橋周辺に水上歩道(とんぼりリバーウォーク)が設けられ、また遊覧船も運航されています。これは、21世紀に入って整備されたものですが、実は道頓堀は1960年代半ばに一度大規模な改修が行われました。この時は、水質改善・高潮対策のため、川の両岸を少しずつ埋め立て、護岸を高くするとともに、埋め立てた部分の半分を川沿いの地主に売却して改修費用に当て、もう半分をグリーンベルト(一部に遊歩道)にするものでした。日本橋より東側では、現在もその時に作られたグリーンベルトが残っています。

 この改修工事に当たって、安井九兵衛の子孫の方が道頓堀の土地所有権を主張して、国と大阪府・市を訴えて、裁判を起こしました。裁判自体は10年余り続きましたが、訴えは退けられました。この裁判で、道頓堀は安井九兵衛らが私財を投じて開発したもので、その所有権は子孫である自分にあるという主張を裏付けるための証拠書類として、多くの安井家文書が提出されたのです。その後、安井家文書はそれ以前から一部の古文書が寄贈されていた大阪市立博物館(現在の大阪歴史博物館)に収蔵されることになりました。さらに、2012年になって静岡県袋井市の遠藤亮平さん(安井家縁戚)のお宅で保存されていた「安井家文書」と考えられる古文書が新たに発見されました。これも現在は大阪歴史博物館に寄託されています。私も大阪歴史博物館の学芸員八木滋さんと一緒に遠藤さんのお宅を訪問し、現物を見せていただきましたが、その時の興奮を今もはっきりと憶えています。

 新しく発見されたものも含めて安井家文書には、道頓堀とその周辺の都市開発に関係した史料がたくさん含まれています。また、江戸時代には南組惣年寄を勤めるとともに、道頓堀周辺の町や芝居に対する特権を持っていました。織田信長などからもらった文書やさまざまな武家と交わした書状などとともに、そうした特権の根拠を示すための由緒書、水帳(土地台帳)や大絵図、芝居関係の文書なども多数残されています。それらから、道頓堀周辺の開発について見てみましょう。

2.由緒書に見る道頓堀の開発

 道頓堀の開発を考えるにあたって、あらかじめ二つのことに注目しておきましょう。一つは、道頓堀が開発される直前の豊臣期の大坂はどういう状況だったかという点です。これまでの研究によれば、豊臣秀吉が天正11(1583)年に大坂城の建設に着手して以降、徐々に上町台地・天満・船場の辺りの城下町づくりが進められていきました。しかし、西船場や島之内は農村のままでした。つまり、道頓堀の開発はすでに都市域となっていた船場などと一定の空間を隔てたところに計画されたという点です。

 もう一つは、現在の道頓堀を歩いてみると、道路と川との間に奥行きの短い区画があり建物が建っています。これは、後で話す「浜地」と呼ばれるものの名残りで、大坂の堀川の開発にとって大事なものでした。

 安井家文書には寛文10(1670)年や延宝5(1677)年の「由緒書上げ」が残っています。これには、赤い付箋が貼られています。道頓堀裁判の時に、証拠文書として提出された際に貼られたものです。この由緒書上げなどによって、道頓堀の開発は次のような経緯で行われたことが分かります。

  1. 慶長17(1612)年に成安道頓・安井治兵衛・同九兵衛・平野藤次郎の4人が出願して、道頓堀川の開削に着手。その両岸を奥行20間宛の家屋敷地とする町地の取立て(開発)が開始された。
  2. しかし、安井治兵衛は病没し、成安道頓は大坂の陣で豊臣方として敗死した。大坂の陣後に大坂城主となった松平忠明の家老・奉行衆から、元和元(1615)年9月に、あとに残った安井九兵衛と平野藤次郎に道頓堀両岸の町屋(町地)の取立てを行うようにという文書が出された(この段階で堀川は完成)。
  3. 松平忠明は元和5(1619)年に大和郡山に移され、大坂は幕府直轄都市となるが、その後、17世紀半ばころまでは、「明(空き)屋敷」も少なくなかった。
  4. 町立てが早くに進んだ「八町」(「組合八町」)については、道頓堀開発以来の由緒から、下年寄を安井九兵衛が任命しており、また、明暦元(1655)年の水帳(土地台帳)改めの際も平野徳寿(藤次郎の弟)とともに奥判を押した。また、その際、「道頓堀大絵図」を作成し、町奉行所に提出した。

 道頓堀の開発に尽力した安井治兵衛・九兵衛兄弟は久宝寺寺内町(現在の八尾市)の出身、成安道頓・平野藤次郎は平野郷(現在の大阪市平野区)の出身で、彼らは大阪周辺の在郷町の有力者たちです。西船場の堀川の開発などにも有力町人が尽力したものが多くありました。

3.道頓堀開発の曲折

 彼らは、堀川を掘るとともに、その両側に斜面状の浜地を置き、さらにその両側に道を通し、道沿いに奥行き20間の家屋敷からなる町地を取り立てる形で開発を進めました。こういった町立てが行われた空間は、一定区域ごとに吉左衛門町・立慶町などの「町」が形成されましたが、それは家持たちの共同組織でした。

 さて、17世紀前半の道頓堀周辺の開発について、新出の安井家文書から明らかになってきました。その辺りのことを、安井家文書の整理・分析を進めてきた八木滋さんの研究によって紹介してみましょう。

 次の絵図と模式図を見てください。

「大坂三郷町絵図(明暦元年)」より(部分拡大)大阪歴史博物館所蔵

 道頓堀の東半分は比較的早く町立てが進み、下年寄も置かれて、組合八町の原型ができていたようです。1630年頃には部分的に空き屋敷も少し見られ、寛永17年に家屋敷ごとに再開発願いが出されて、町立てが完成します。一方、道頓堀の東端と西横堀より西側は、開発が進まず、安井や平野だけでなく周辺の木津村・上難波村・西高津村などの有力者が、一定区域の開発を出願し、彼らが町年寄となる形で再開発が行われました。

 その再開発が行われた段階、17世紀半ばすぎ(明暦年間)の様子を表現したのが、この模式図です。平野徳寿町・難波孫兵衛町・高津五右衛門町などの町の名前にもこうした開発経過が表現されています。

 この段階の家屋敷の所持者を書き上げた「道頓堀大絵図」が安井家文書のなかに残っていました。この絵図です(大絵図)。

「道頓堀大絵図」 大阪歴史博物館所蔵

 3メートル余りの大きな絵図に細かい文字で家持名が記されています。由緒書上げに記されていた明暦元年の道頓堀大絵図の写しで、由緒書にある通り安井九兵衛と平野徳寿の書判が見えます。これを見ると、安井家や平野家の大きな家屋敷が日本橋の両側にあるのが分かります。その他、両人が奥書した水帳なども残されており、安井家文書は、道頓堀周辺の開発や安井家の権限が分かる大変貴重な史料群なのです。

『摂津名所図会』より「天満市之側」大阪歴史博物館所蔵

 八木さんの研究などで近年、こうした道頓堀周辺の開発の事情が詳細に明らかになってきました。これを踏まえて、いくつか補足しておきます。川の両側の浜地は、荷揚げ場として利用されたほか、道路を挟んだ向い側の家屋敷の家持による利用が認められ、浜納屋が設置されたりしました。浜地の様子は、様々な絵画史料で見られますが、斜面なので清水の舞台のような足駄造りにして、建物を作ります。但し、浜納屋などは恒常的な施設とすることは禁じられ、いつでも撤去できることが条件でした。

 さらに安井九兵衛は、道頓堀周辺の繁栄を図るため、芝居を誘致しました。その功績に報いるため、全ての芝居小屋で、安井家が見物するための桟敷がいつでも確保されることになっていました。これを安井桟敷といいます。寛文5(1665)年に、芝居が繁昌するようになって、常時桟敷を空けておくのはもったいないということで、安井家には見物したい時にいつでも芝居小屋の木戸を通れる札が渡されるようになりました。芝居見物に便利なようにその札を取り付けられるようになっている煙草盆も残されています。17世紀半ば過ぎには、立慶町と吉左衛門町に8軒の大芝居と浜地に小芝居16軒がありましたが、18世紀になる頃には、小芝居は無くなり、浜地には水茶屋(=芝居茶屋)が充満することになりました。

 浜地は、大坂の多くの堀川にも設けられていましたが、18世紀後半には、堀江川などで浜地を埋め立て、町人地とする工事が行われましたが、この埋め立て地を「新築地」といいます。道頓堀でも、安永6(1777)年に河内国楠葉村の有力者中井万太郎が南岸を埋め立て、7間の新築地を築きたいと出願しました。組合8町の住民(「所之者」)たちはこれに強く反対し、安井九兵衛からも先祖が取り立てた道頓堀だという由緒を根拠に、これに反対する出願を行いました。これらを受けて、3年後に大坂町奉行所は江戸の判断を仰ぎ、中井の出願を却下しました。これによって、道頓堀の両岸は幕末まで浜地のままで続いていきました。

4.まとめ

 安井九兵衛家は、代々、大坂三郷の南組の惣年寄qqqを勤めました。三郷の運営の中心には、それぞれ数人の惣年寄がいましたが、彼らは初期の有力町人たちです。安井家もその一つですが、それと同時に道頓堀の周辺に特別な権限を持っていました。安井家文書には、惣年寄や家の由緒に関わる様々な文書も残されています。さらに、道頓堀周辺に対する権限に基づき、作成されたものがとりわけ多く含まれています。史料の残り方とそれを作成・所蔵する家や集団の社会的位置づけは深く関わっているのです。

 最後に、2点ほど指摘しておきたいと思います。

 一つめは、道頓堀周辺の開発の性格という点です。開発に着手された段階では、「豊臣期の大坂」の図に示された範囲に限られていました。そこと道頓堀の間には三津寺村や難波村などの農地が広がっていました。それ以前に小さな川筋があったという地理的条件もあるでしょうが、道頓堀の両岸の町立ては、大坂の都市づくりにおいて、その南を限る意味合いが大きかったのではないかと思います。東半分の北側は元和6(1620)年の三津寺村の都市化によって、島之内として開発されます。しかし、西半分は開発がスムーズには進まず、道頓堀大絵図に見られるように、南岸は空き屋敷のままでした。また、前回の絵図に見られたように、17世紀末までは、堀江地域は農地のままでした。ここは、元禄11(1698)年の堀江新地の開発によって、ようやく都市化が実現します。

 先に触れたことも振り返って考えると、道頓堀周辺の開発は、同時期に行われた西船場の堀川の開発と一連の、都市大坂の形成プロセスの一環という性格を持っています。それとともに、「所賑い」(繁栄)のために芝居や茶屋などが赦免されるなどの点は、後の堀江や曾根崎などで行われた新地開発につながっていく性格も持っていたと言えるでしょう。

 もう一つは、浜地のことです。先に現在の道頓堀に行くと、川の両岸に奥行きの短い区画が続いていることに触れましたが、実はここは江戸時代の浜地に起源があります。明治以降、浜地も個人の所有地になっていきます。その後、1960年代の埋め立て・改修などを経て形状が変わってしまったところもありますが、江戸時代以来の都市空間の規定性をそこに見出すことができるのです。さらに言えば、現在の道頓堀周辺の賑いも江戸時代以来の盛り場・繁華街の延長上にあるのではないでしょうか。