Lecture 1: Basics + Antiquity I “Osaka’s Geography and Prehistory”

Introduction

In this lecture, after first going over the aims of the course, we’re going to look at the Osaka area’s geographical features and the prehistory of city formation on the Uemachi Plateau
The city that we now call Osaka originally developed from the Port of Naniwa on the tip of the Uemachi Plateau, between the mouths of the Yodo and Yamato Rivers. The Kofun period (approx. 300-538 CE) saw the emergence of monarchical authority in the center of the Japanese archipelago (the Kinai region, i.e, the provinces surrounding Kyoto) and eventually the formation of the Kingdom of Yamato (Wakoku) across the islands. It was during this time that Naniwa started to undergo urban development as the eastern endpoint of the Inland Sea (Setonaikai), that is, Kinai’s gateway to the vital transportation route that tied western Japan together.

First we’ll use the Morinomiya kaizuka (mounds of discarded shells) from the Jōmon period (15000-900 BCE) to get a solid understanding of the geographical characteristics of the Naniwa area. By looking at the mounds, we can trace how the ancient Kawachi Bay, which covered practically all of what is now Osaka, became solid land, forming the basis for the agricultural society of the Yayoi period (300 BCE – 300 CE).

We’ll then trace the process unification that accompanied the maturation of agricultural society and eventually resulted in the formation of the Kingdom of Yamato during the Kofun period. As we go, we’ll touch on the appearance of large-scale archaeological sites that could be viewed as the first sprouts of cities.

Introduction to the Course

Hello, everyone. I’m Saga Ashita, one of the professors of Japanese history at OCU.

In this course, we, the Japanese history faculty, will give a series of lectures covering the history of the city of Osaka, from prehistory to present. With representative source materials—textual records as well as objects—from each historical period pointing the way, we will use the latest scholarly research and methodologies to elucidate and interpret the urban spatial structures through which the people of Osaka lived their lives.

“Japanese history” as taught through middle and high school is often regarded as a rote memorization subject, with classes centered on remembering dates, names, and historical events. Some have criticized this style of pedagogy, arguing that what’s important for students to learn is the general flow of history, not its minute details.

By contrast, we believe that it is vital to acquire a grasp of both the concrete facts and the great trends of history, with the latter grounded in the former. But don’t think that this means we want to double down on the importance of rote memorization and the political history-centric curriculum in schools. Far from it.

What we argue for is the historical importance of our everyday lives as average people—lives that at first glance might seem to consist in merely doing the same things over and over again, but which actually, through the sediment of that repetition, serve as the foundation for the grandest movements of history. Think about all the different facets of everyday life: working and making things; then moving, buying, selling, and consuming those things; and ultimately creating families and sharing the necessities of life while living and cooperating in the urban and rural communities that we build together. It’s easy to use the events that appear in textbooks as the standard for thinking about how history happens. But in reality the roots of history are constituted in our daily life and work, and only on this basis does the history of powerful figures like Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi unfold.

We hold that the greatest joys and attractions of historical research lie in reconstructing ways of life—the relationships of interdependence that sustained them, and the spaces they took place in—thereby bringing to light the history of common folk living out their lives from day to day and through the ages.

To illustrate such lives concretely, this course looks to the city of Osaka. In the ancient period, the Uemachi Plateau, which sits at the center of the city today, served for a time as the site of the imperial palace (Naniwanomiya) and, therefore, the capital. The area thus became a primary node for the circulation of goods and people, as well as for international relations. It continued as an urban space even after the capital moved, came to be called “Osaka” from the end of the fifteenth century, and eventually Hideyoshi (1537-1598) chose it as his seat of power, constructing the massive Osaka Castle and building up the surrounding town. Thus Osaka is a city that represents the two classic urban forms in Japanese history: the Chinese-style capital of the ancient period and the castle town of the early modern period, with the gap between them, importantly, bridged by the medieval period’s city networks.

Though in this course we tell the history of Osaka primarily from the Uemachi area (the city is many times bigger today), we will also give attention to the outward expansion of the city and its international position, sometimes using comparisons with Edo-Tokyo to further our understanding. Furthermore, we’ll be making extensive use of the texts, illustrations, and other primary sources and visual materials that together allow us to reconstruct the true shape of the city’s past. In bringing together these materials, we’ve worked closely with researchers from other institutions, such as the Osaka Museum of History, and along the way a number of them will join us as guest speakers.

Introduction to Lecture 1

Hello, everyone. I’m Kishimoto Naofumi, one of the Japanese history faculty at OCU. Today I’ll be speaking about the prehistory of Osaka’s urbanization.

Osaka is a city that grew up in the area carved out by the Kinki (or Kinai) region’s two greatest rivers, the Yodo to the north and the Yamato to the south. The city got its start at the tip of the Uemachi Plateau, which cuts across the lowlands between the rivers, when a port known as Naniwa-tsu was established in the fifth century CE. We call this the Kofun period, the age when monarchial rule first emerged in the Kinki region and the Kingdom of Yamato began to expand across the Japanese archipelago. Located at the eastern end of the Inland Sea, the vital transportation artery that cuts through western Japan, Naniwa-tsu served as the front door of the Kinki region. Following the Yodo River upstream provided the area’s connection to eastern Japan.

To recapitulate, the city of Osaka began with the establishment of the port at Naniwa as a transportation hub connecting eastern and western Japan. With Naniwa as its nucleus, the city thus took on the general form it would maintain for the next six hundred years, until the end of the classical period (sixth through twelfth centuries). The city’s position atop the Uemachi Plateau, a kind of island amidst rivers, was historically decisive, particularly because of how the plateau provided a path of solid land extending southward.

In accordance with these geographical particularities, Naniwa became a true city over the seventh century and a stage for the Taika Reforms (ca. 645), which were initiated by Emperor Kōtoku to centralize power in the imperial court using Chinese knowledge and practices. Though the capital subsequently moved to Nara, Nagaoka, and finally Kyoto, Naniwa’s importance as a transportation hub continued undiminished. The city started to take on its modern form after Rennyo (1415-1499), head priest of the True Pure Land School of Buddhism, established the Honganji temple complex on the site where Osaka Castle stands today.

1. The Uemachi Plateau and the Osaka Flatlands

To picture what kind of place Naniwa was, we have to go into a little more detail about Osaka’s geography. The Uemachi Plateau I keep referring to extends 12 km north-south (from what is now Osaka Castle to Sumiyoshi Ward) and varies in width from 1 to 1.5 km.

Due to warming global temperatures during the Early Jōmon period (5000-3500 BCE), the sea level rose to cover Osaka’s flatlands and the Uemachi Plateau became a peninsula jutting up from the south. We call the body of water that lay east of this peninsula Kawachi Bay. Over the millennia, as the Yodo and Yamato Rivers deposited much silt into the bay, more and more of the area was transformed into terra firma, creating Osaka’s flatlands. The bay narrowed into a lagoon/estuary (barely open to the sea), and finally, by the Yayoi period, a true freshwater lake. The lake remained into the Warring States period (late fifteenth to sixteenth centuries), stretching east-west from the area east of Osaka Castle to the foot of Mt. Ikoma. It shrank even further in the Edo period (from 1600), becoming known as Fukaya Reservoir, and disappeared entirely when it was reclaimed for agricultural land in the 1700s.

With the expanse of flatlands that resulted from this process, and the Kinki region’s two biggest rivers running through them, the Osaka area became subject to frequent flooding. And all the layers of silt left behind after each flood gave us the Osaka Plain as we know it today. We can therefore point to water—repeatedly being overrun by it, rebuilding in its wake, and attempting to control it—as a crucial factor in Osaka’s history.

2.Environmental Transformations as Seen through the Morinomiya Archaeological Site

For additional perspective on the formation of Osaka’s flatlands, let’s look at an archaeological site around Morinomiya. Located on the eastern edge of the Uemachi Plateau, the evidence indicates that the area was settled from the Middle Jōmon period (3500 – 2500 BCE). A series of excavations beginning in 1971 revealed a 100-meter stretch of shell mounds (essentially ancient garbage piles) extending north-south along the plateau’s edge. At the time, the site’s eastern edge would have been covered by Kawachi Bay. These Jōmon inhabitants chose to settle at a site facing the calm waters of the bay, living off the fruits of the land and sea.

At their deepest, the Morinomiya shell mounds are about 2 meters. The bottom layers contain Pacific oysters and the top layers Seta basket clams. The oysters, a saltwater species, date from the Late Jōmon period (2500-1300 BCE), harvested and discarded along the nearby coast of Kawachi Bay. In contrast, the clam shells in the upper layers date from the Final Jōmon and early Yayoi periods (i.e, 1300 to after 400 BCE), and are from a freshwater species. This tells us that by the Final Jōmon the mouth of the Yoda River was becoming a delta, plugging up the area between Kawachi and Osaka Bays and turning the former into a lagoon.

3. The Yayoi Period

The harvesting and disposing of basket clams at the Morinomiya site continued into the Yayoi period, when rice paddy agriculture appeared in Japan. In the Kinki region, rice became established from around the fifth century BCE. Covered in silt from the Yodo and Yamato Rivers, Osaka’s plains were well suited to growing rice, and paddies began to be opened along the banks of area’s many medium-sized and small waterways. At the Morinomiya site, older hunter-gatherer strategies did continue on, but we know that rice was being cultivated in the flatlands along the Uemachi Plateau’s eastern edge.

As rice agriculture became more entrenched, the population increased, as did the size of settlements. Wars started to break out between groups. Large-scale Yayoi-period settlements were usually fortified, encircled by protective moats and earthen walls. Stereotypical examples from the present-day greater Osaka area include the Kamei site in Yao City, the Ikegami and Sone sites in Izumi City, and the Ama site in Takatsuki City. Some of these settlements are estimated to have been home to one or two thousand people, and we also see the emergence of a class of power holders around this time. This is a pattern—fortified large-scale settlements accompanying the growth of agricultural society—common to the development of human civilizations around the world.

4. Cities and the Birth of the Kingdom of Yamato

From the first century CE, about five hundred years after the establishment of rice agriculture in Kinki, the region’s southern areas, tied together by Yamato River, began a rapid process of unification. We believe this society to correspond to the Kingdom of Yamato (or Yamatai) described in Chinese Wei-Dynasty records (“An Account of the Wa”). Similar unifications were taking place throughout western Japan during the first century, giving birth to regional kingdoms, of which Yamato was but one. The kingdoms’ dealings with each other laid the foundations of trans-archipelagic societal connections from Kinki to Kyushu.

Soon enough, by the late second century, northern Kyushu, the most developmentally advanced region during the Yayoi period, gave way to the rising Kingdom of Yamato. According to “An Account of the Wa”, Empress Himiko became the first ruler of the “Kingdom of Wa” after a civil war, and by the third century a politically integrated order had spread across the west of Japan, ushering in the Kofun period.

If the regional kingdoms that emerged during the first century had continued to fight with each other, Yayoi-period settlements might have increased further in size and strength of fortifications, possibly giving birth to true cities. However, in reality it seems the kingdoms developed cooperative connections, despite the struggle for hegemony in civil war I mentioned, and the ascendance of the Kingdom of Yamato brought an end to the conflict and established the framework for trans-archipelagic rule. During the Kofun period, the elite’s estates and the commoner villages became physically separate, with the consequence that the large-scale Yayoi-period settlements did not take the path that might have led to the emergence of cities.

The Kofun period saw concentration of population in political urban formations like the base of imperial authority in the Nara valley and regional trading centers. In Osaka, the center of trade left Naniwa and moved up the Yamato River to the middle of the plain. But this site, despite its large scale, continued only for about 150 years, until the early fourth century, and never developed into a city.


第1回:導入・考古「都市大阪の位置と前史」

皆さん、こんにちは。大阪市立大学文学部、日本史学教室の佐賀朝です。

この授業は、私たち、大阪市立大学の教授陣が、考古・古代から現代にいたる都市・大阪の歴史について講義するものです。各時代の特徴的な史資料―文字史料やモノ資料―を手がかりにして、大阪の都市空間や、そこで展開された住民生活とその変遷を、最新の研究成果や方法を用いて解明し、わかりやすく解説します。

 日本の中学校や高校までの「日本史」は、よく暗記科目と言われ、年号や人物名、歴史上の事件などを覚え込む授業だと見られています。一方、そうした高校までの「日本史」を批判して、細かい事実ではなく、「歴史の大まかな流れを押さえるのが大切だ」というような言い方もあります。

しかし、私たちは、具体的な史実を通じて考えることも、それをふまえて、大きな歴史の流れを捉えることも、どちらも大事だと考えています。しかし、それは政治史を中心とした高校までの日本史や暗記が大事だ、という意味ではありません。

私たちは、一見、同じことの繰り返しのように見える、私たち庶民の日常生活が、層をなすように折り重なって、歴史の大きな流れを基礎づけていると考えています。庶民の日常生活の中には、「働き、ものをつくる生産」の場面や、「それらを運び、売り買いし、消費する流通や消費の場面」、あるいは「家族をつくり、衣食住を共にし、村や町をつくって共同で暮らす、という共同生活の場面」もあります。教科書に登場するような歴史的事件ばかりが注目され、それを基準に時代の流れを考えがちですが、本来、歴史は、こうした私たちの日々の生産や生活をベースに成り立っており、その上に、信長や秀吉のような為政者の歴史が展開されているのです。

 私たちは、こうした庶民の生活や、それをめぐる人々の相互関係、あるいはそれらが行われる空間――それらの具体的な姿を復元し、各時代において、日々を暮らしながら、それぞれの人生を全うした人間の歴史を明らかにすることこそが、歴史学のいちばんの面白さだろうと考えています。

そうした人間の歴史を具体的に描くために、この授業では、都市大阪という素材を取り上げます。現在の上町台地周辺は、古代に難波宮という宮殿や都が置かれ、その後も流通上、国際交流上、重要な位置を占め、都市的な性格を持ちつづけ、15世紀末に「大坂」と呼ばれるようになり、秀吉はここに城下町を建設したのです。大阪は、日本の都市の歴史を特徴的に示す古代の都城と、近世の城下町の両方が置かれた都市であり、その間をつなぐ中世の都市ネットワークの存在も、重要です。

この授業では、大阪の上町台地を主要な舞台として大阪の都市史を描きますが、都市空間の周辺地域への広がりや、大阪の国際的位置、江戸=東京との比較にも目配りします。

 また、それだけでなく、文書・絵図など、都市の本当の姿を復元するために欠かせない一次史料や、ビジュアルな素材も意識的に活用し、大阪の歴史像を具体的に明らかにします。さらに、この授業では、大阪歴史博物館を含めた大阪博物館協会とも連携し、何人かのゲストスピーカーにもご登場いただきます。

 今日は、その第一回目として考古学の岸本直文先生にご登場いただきましょう。

第1回 はじめに

 皆さん、こんにちは。大阪市立大学文学部、日本史研究室の岸本直文です。ここからは、大阪の都市形成の前史についてお話しします。

大阪は、淀川と大和川という近畿地方のふたつの大きな河川の河口部に誕生した都市です。その出発点は、この河口部に突き出た上町台地の先端に、「難波津」という港が5世紀に設置されたことにありました。これは、近畿地方を本拠とする王権が生まれ、日本列島に倭国が形成された古墳時代のことです。「難波津」は、西日本の交通の大動脈である瀬戸内海の東端にあたり、近畿地方の玄関口となる位置にあります。また、淀川をさかのぼることで東日本にもつながっています。

つまり都市大阪は、古代国家が、東西日本をつなぐ物流拠点として「難波津」を配置したことに始まるのです。こうして、「難波津」を核に上町台地の先端に古代都市が形成されます。海と河川をつなぐ位置に安定した上町台地があったこと、これが決定的に重要だったと思います。また、上町台地が大阪南部へ向かう陸路であったことも重要です。

 こうした地理的特性により、7世紀には難波が都となり大化改新の舞台となりました。また、その後、都は平城京や長岡京、平安京へと移りますが、交通の要所という難波の重要性は変わらず、長く継続していきます。そして、15世紀末の蓮如による大坂本願寺の造営以降、現在の大阪に直接つながる都市の形成が始まります。

1.上町台地と大阪の平野

「難波」がどういう場所であったのかを考えるために、大阪の地理的特性をさらに確認しておきます。まず、既に名前を出した上町台地ですが、これは住吉を南端とし、大阪城の位置する北端まで、南北12キロメートルにわたってのびる、幅1キロメートルから1.5キロメートルの高台です。

縄文時代前期には、「縄文海進」とよばれる温暖化により海水面の上昇によって、今は陸地である大阪の平野に海が入り込み、上町台地は半島となって南から突き出ていました。上町台地の東側の海を「河内湾」とよんでいます。その後、淀川や大和川が運ぶ土砂により徐々に陸化が進み、大阪の平野ができあがっていきます。「河内湾」は狭くなり「河内潟」に、そして弥生時代には「河内湖」となります。この湖は、戦国時代になっても、大阪城の東から生駒山のふもとにかけて、まだ東西に長く残っていました。江戸時代にはさらに縮小して「深野池」などになっていましたが、18世紀に新田開発で埋め立てられ姿を消します。

 大阪の平坦で広い平野はこうして形成されたもので、そこに近畿地方の二大河川である淀川と大和川が流れ込んでいるため、頻繁に洪水に襲われました。逆に言えば、こうした洪水が繰り返されるたびに土砂の堆積が何度も上に重なっていき、いまの平野ができあがっているのです。大阪の歴史の一面として、水害を受けながらも、生活の再建と治水対策を繰り返してきたということも指摘しておきます。

2.森ノ宮遺跡にみる環境の変化

大阪の平野の形成について、森ノ宮遺跡を取り上げて見ておきましょう。森ノ宮遺跡は上町台地の東側にあり、縄文時代中期から人が住み始めたようです。1971年以来の発掘調査で、上町台地に沿って南北100mにわたって貝塚が広がっていることがわかりました。当時は、遺跡の東側に「河内湾」が入り込んでいました。森ノ宮遺跡の縄文人は、穏やかな内海である「河内湾」に面した場所を選び、上町台地の山の幸と、「河内湾」での漁労活動による海の幸をえて暮らしていました。

 森ノ宮遺跡の貝層は厚いところで2mあります。下層にはマガキが、上層はセタシジミの貝層があります。下層のマガキ層は、縄文時代後期のもので、近くの「河内湾」沿岸で採取したカキ殻を捨てたものです。これに対し、上層は縄文時代晩期から弥生時代前期にあたり、淡水産のセタシジミの貝層に変化しています。このことから、淀川河口部の三角州が発達し、大阪湾と「河内湾」の間を塞ぐようになり、縄文時代晩期には「河内潟」へと推移したことがわかります。

3.弥生時代

森ノ宮遺跡でのセタシジミの採取と廃棄は、水田稲作が始まった弥生時代にも継続しています。近畿地方で水田稲作が定着するのは紀元前5世紀頃のことです。淀川と大和川が運んだ土砂により陸化の進んだ大阪の平野は、稲作に適した場所となりました。平野にはいくつもの中小河川が流れ、河川沿いに水田が開かれていきます。森ノ宮遺跡の場合も、縄文時代以来の食料獲得のあり方を残しながらも、上町台地の東側に形成が進んだ平野を水田として稲作を始めたことがわかります。

稲作が定着すると人口も増え、集落規模も大きくなっていきます。また、集団間での戦争も起こるようになります。弥生時代の大規模集落の典型は、まわりに濠と土塁をめぐらした防御を固めた環濠集落です。大阪では、八尾市の亀井遺跡や和泉市の池上・曽根遺跡、高槻市の安満遺跡などが代表的なものです。なかには、人口1000人から2000人と推定されるものも現れ、集落を統率する有力者も生まれてきます。このように農耕社会の進行とともに大勢が集住する防御を固めた大規模集落が発達することは、世界的にも共通しているといわれています。

4.倭国誕生と都市

近畿地方に稲作が定着して500年後の1世紀に入ると、近畿地方では、大和川で結ばれる南部地域が主導し、急速に社会統合が進みます。これが〈魏志倭人伝〉に現れるヤマト国(邪馬台国)と考えられます。1世紀には、西日本各地で同じように社会統合が進み、地域王権が生まれ、ヤマト国もそのひとつでした。そして、それらが相互に結びつき西日本規模の社会関係が形成されていきます。

やがて2世紀後半には、弥生時代の先進地であった北部九州に代わり、ヤマト国が求心力をもつようになります。〈魏志倭人伝〉によれば、倭国乱とよばれる争乱を経て、ヤマト国に本拠を置く女王卑弥呼を初代倭国王とし、日本列島の諸地域が政治的にまとまった倭国というものが3世紀に誕生します。これ以降が古墳時代です。

1世紀に生まれた地域王権が、もし長期にわたって競合を繰り返していれば、弥生時代の集落はさらに防御性を高め大規模化し、都市が生まれていたかもしれません。しかし日本列島の場合、地域王権は連携的な関係にあったようで、「倭国乱」という覇権争いは生じますが、倭国王を立てることで争いを収束させ、倭国という枠組みを作り上げました。そして、古墳時代には、有力者の屋敷地と一般の人々の集落に分解し、弥生時代の大規模集落が都市へと発達する道筋をたどりませんでした。

古墳時代において、多くの人々が集住したのは、政治都市である奈良盆地の王権本拠地と、各地の交易拠点でした。大阪では、難波ではなく、大和川沿いにさかのぼった平野の中央部が交易拠点となっていました。しかしこうした大規模遺跡も、150年あまり続いたあと4世紀前半には断絶し、都市として発達することはありませんでした。